Personal Injury Newsletters

Defendant's Wrongful Use of Process

It is a tort to use the civil or criminal form of process to primarily seek a result other than that for which the form of process was intended. The conduct that encompasses the abuse of process is a defendant's wrongful use of the process for an ulterior purpose and some willful act in the use of the process to accomplish that ulterior purpose.

Custom as Proof of Negligence

In some circumstances, custom may be used as proof of negligence in a personal injury action. For example, a worker in a sawmill is injured when he or she accidentally puts his or her hand onto the blade of an electric saw.

Federal Volunteer Protection Act -- Applicability

The federal Volunteer Protection Act (VPA) applies to "volunteers."


When a municipality is acting within its governmental capacity or is performing a governmental function, such as providing water or utility services, it is generally not liable for negligence with regard to the governmental function. However, if the municipality is acting in a proprietary manner, that is, when it owns or maintains real or personal property, the municipality may be liable for the negligence of its representatives, agents, and employees.


Because a tenant is an occupier of property, the tenant is liable for all dangerous conditions or activities that are conducted on the property just as any other occupier of property would be. However, the tenant is only liable for areas over which the tenant has control. The tenant is not responsible for areas outside the leased premises or over which the landlord has control.